Frequently Used Terminology

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Chemical-Trail. A trail containing chemical and/or metal particulates.

Modern usage refers to man-made trails in the atmosphere which are by aircraft. Although there is a variety of methods available to disperse atmospheric chemical trails e.g. rockets, ground-based deployment technologies, ships.

Chemtrails can contain metal and chemical particulates including: Sulfur, Carbon Black. Aromatics, Aluminium etc. Such substances cause/contribute to aviation induced cloudiness and often referred to as ‘Cloud Condensation Nuclei’ or CCN’s.

The word ‘chemtrails’ is often used interchangeably with and/or can refer to: Weather Modification, Cloud Seeding, Geoengineering, Solar Radiation Management (SRM), Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI), Climate Engineering, Persistent Contrail, Aviation Induced Cloudiness, Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB), Sky Whitening and Weather Warfare.

Atmospheric Convection Management (ACM)
Management of earth’s convection processes. Convection is a process which acts to transport much of earth’s surface heat to the upper troposphere and is linked to earth’s atmospheric circulation and climate systems.

Albedo Modification
Modification of earth’s reflectivity (albedo); with high albedo meaning bright, and low albedo meaning dark.

Aviation Induced Cloudiness (AIC)
aka Induced Cirrus Cloudiness, Artificial Clouds, Man-Made Cloud, Aviaticus Cloud.

Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR)
The deliberate removal of carbon dioxide from earths’ atmosphere. This technology also involves a Carbon Dioxide Storage and/or Recycling component.

Condensation trail created by aircraft.

Persistent Contrail (aka Aerodynamic contrail)
A persisting contrail which forms man-made high-altitude cirrus clouds, or high thin cirrus clouds which have been found to trap heat.

Young Contrail
A contrail less than 5 hours old.

Contrail Cirrus (aka High Thin Cirrus)
A contrail that has formed into a cirrus cloud. Known to trap heat.

Climate Engineering/Intervention
The deliberate and large-scale engineering/intervention in the Earth’s climatic system.

Cloud Brightening (aka Marine Cloud Brightening, MCB)
Introducing sea water particles (as little as 2 µm in diameter) to increase cloud reflectivity (albedo), making clouds brighter.

Environmental Modification (EnMod)
EnMod also refers to an international 1978 UN treaty, prohibiting the hostile use of environmental modification technologies. See the Environmental Modification Convention (, aka the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques.

Earth Radiation Management (ERM)
Management of earth’s (radiation budget) long and short-wave radiation.

The deliberate large-scale manipulation of an environmental process.

Global Dimming
A reduction in the amount of sunlight reaching earth’s surface.

High-Frequency Advanced Auroral Research Project (HAARP)
Originally a US Military funded research project, now used by academic researchers, the HAARP facility is located in Alaska and aims to research and/or enhance earth’s ionosphere, enabling better radio communications and surveillance technologies. (See also ionospheric heater).

A region of earth’s atmosphere which includes earth’s thermosphere and some of earth’s mesosphere and exosphere.

Ionospheric Heater
Technology designed to transmit strong radio waves into earth’s ionosphere and upper atmosphere, modifying electron temperatures, to research plasma turbulence.
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NEXRAD (aka Weather Surveillance Radar or WSR-88D)
S-band doppler radars used by institutions (e.g. DoD, NOAA, FAA) to ‘detect’ rain, wind, and atmospheric movement. Energy pulses produced by NEXRAD radars have the potential to interact with metallic aerosols and impact weather patterns.
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Ocean Fertilisation
The introduction of nutrients to the upper ocean. The goal of Ocean Fertilisation is to boost marine food production and to remove of carbon dioxide from earths’ atmosphere.

Particulate Matter (PM)
More info: Suspended particulate matter (SPM), Respirable suspended particle (RSP), Particles with diameter of 10 micrometres or less (PM10), Ultrafine particles Diameter of 2.5 micrometres or less (PM2.5), Nanoparticles Particles between 1 and 100 nanometres in size.

Radiative Forcing (RF) (aka Climate Forcing)
Altering earth’s radiation balance. Positive forcing refers to more incoming energy, and Negative forcing refers more outgoing energy

Solar Geoengineering
Managing earth’s radiation budget by injecting aerosols into the atmosphere to increase earth’s reflectivity.

Solar Radiation Management (SRM)
See Solar Geoengineering

Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE)
A Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Research Project commencing in 2010, and led by the University of Bristol, the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh which began in October 2010. (See

Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment Scopex (SCOPEX)
A solar geoengineering research experiment developed by the Solar Geoengineering Research Project at Harvard University.

Stratospheric Aerosol Injection Lofter (SAIL)
The name given to a newly developed solar geoengineering aircraft designed to carry a dense mass of molten sulfur into the stratosphere to be deployed for solar geoengineering. (See

Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI)
See Solar Geoengineering

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering (SAG)
See Solar Geoengineering

Weather Modification
Intentionally creating, manipulating or altering the weather (can refer to local, regional, global and/or seasonal weather modification).