Radiative and Climate Effects of Stratospheric Sulfur Geoengineering Using Seasonally Varying Injection Areas

Original post from the OpChemtrails Library. Download this document here.

Notes:
“[…] varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing.” p.1

“Most previous modelling studies have investigated scenarios which inject sulfur along or close to the equator. This choice of injection region is well justified because the equator, on the average, receives the highest levels of solar radiation. In addition, the stratospheric circulation transports particles efficiently from the equator around the global atmosphere (Robock et al., 2008). However it has been found in several studies that preventing greenhouse gas (GHG) induced warming by equatorial injections of sulfur lead to overcooling of the tropics and undercooling of the polar regions, compared to the global mean decrease in temperature (Aswathy et al., 2015; Jones et al., 2010; Jones et al., 2016; McCuster et al., 2012; Yu et al., 2015).” p.2

“However, sulfur injected as SO2 takes weeks to months before it is oxidized and forms large enough particles to reflect solar radiation efficiently. Thus to obtain maximum aerosol forcing, one strategy could be to inject sulfur before the intensity of solar radiation has reached its maximum value at the injection latitude, thus leaving time for oxidation and particle growth.” p.3

“After two years, sulfate particles from the injections are removed from the atmosphere.” p.4

“[…] the lifetime of stratospheric sulfur is longer when injected to the equator (Robock et al., 2008).” p.6

“Previous research has shown that higher injections per unit volume lead to relatively larger particles, which in turn leads to relatively shorter lifetime of particles in the atmosphere (Heckendorn et al., 2009; English et al., 2012; Niemeier et al., 2011).” p.6

“Because SRM is turned on abruptly at full force in 2020, it would lead to a fast cooling. In the real world this kind of action is unlikely but based on the simulations plausible if needed for example prevent climate warming emergency (Kravitz et al., 2011).” p.9

“It has been shown that there is a slow decrease in temperature still decades after a decrease in shortwave radiation (Schaller et al., 2014).” p.10

“After the SRM is suspended in 2070 there is a very fast warming, called the termination effect of geoengineering (Jones et al., 2013). This warming is of the same magnitude as the cooling immediately after the sulfur injection is started. Thus, after the SRM is suspended, the climate remains significantly cooler for decades.” p.10

“Compensating the GHG induced global warming using SRM leads to a reduction in the global mean precipitation (Kravitz et al., 2013b; Ferraro and Griffiths, 2016). This is also supported by our simulations. Immediately after the injection has been started, the global mean precipitation falls clearly under the level of year 2010[…]” p.10

“Precipitation is thus more affected by the SRM than CO2.” p.10

“Aerosol particles both absorb radiation (which is then emitted as LW radiation) and they reduce the SW radiation at surface. These effects lead to a drier climate (Ferraro and Griffiths 2016).” p.11

“It has been also shown that P – E (Precipitation – Evaporations) will become more intense (Seager et al., 2010) which will cause wet areas to become wetter but also drying in the subtropical regions such as Mediterranean, Southern part of Africa and Australia.” p.12

“According our aerosol microphysical simulations by GCM, it would be possible to maintain as large global cooling effect as by injecting sulfur only in the equator while concentrating the cooling effect more to the midlatitudes than tropics. This could be achieved if the sulfur injection area is changed during the year.” p.13

“This highlights the role of feedbacks and ocean temperature which reacts slowly to the radiation changes in the atmosphere.” p.14

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Map Information:
30° N – Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Persian Gulf, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, People’s Republic of China, East China Sea, Japan, Pacific Ocean, Mexico, Gulf of California, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, Morocco.

10° N – Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Abyei, Ethiopia, Somalia, Indian Ocean, India, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam, South China Sea, Philippines, Sulu Sea, Tañon Strait, Cebu Strait, Bohol Sea, Surigao Strait, Dinagat Sound, Pacific Ocean, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Costa Rica, Caribbean Sea, Colombia, Venezuela, Atlantic Ocean, Guinea, Guinea / Sierra Leone border, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana.

10° S – Atlantic Ocean, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Lake Malawi, Tanzania, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Savu Sea, Timor Sea, Arafura Sea, Coral Sea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Sea, Pacific Ocean, Cook Islands, Kiribati, French Polynesia, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia.

30° S – South Africa, Lesotho, South Africa, Indian Ocean, Australia, Pacific Ocean, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

Definition: Chemtrail

Chemical-Trail

A trail(s) containing chemical and metal particulates.

Modern usage refers to man-made trails in the atmosphere left by aircraft, however there are a variety of known methods used to disperse atmospheric chemical trails e.g. rockets, ground-based deployment technologies, ships.

Chemtrails can contain metal and chemical particulates including: Sulfur, Carbon Black. Aromatics, Aluminium etc. Such substances cause/contribute to aviation induced cloudiness and are often referred to as ‘Cloud Condensation Nuclei’ or CCN’s.

The word ‘chemtrails’ is often used interchangeably with and/or in relation to: Weather Modification, Cloud Seeding, Geoengineering, Solar Radiation Management (SRM), Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI), Climate Engineering, Persistent Contrails, Aviation Induced Cloudiness, Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB), Sky Whitening, Weather Modification, Man-Made Clouds.

For more information on the subject of Chemtrails please see this free information booklet.

Further Reading: Chemtrails: The Taboo Word

Finding Wally: Propaganda, Inner Circles & Deniability

Finding Wally

Media outlets and online scientific communities came alive this week, with headlines such as “Could an anti-global-warming atmospheric spraying programme really work?”,  “100 Special planes and $2.5 Billion per year for sulphate geoengineering” and “Solar geoengineering could be remarkably inexpensive”.

This buzz of activity surrounds findings of a ‘new’ study, “Stratospheric aerosol injection tactics and costs in the first 15 years of deployment”, by Wake Smith and Gernot Wagner. The study looks at the hypothetical possibility and costs of conducting a global geoengineering program. Interestingly, and perhaps in an attempt to deflect from questions surrounding ongoing aviation induced cloud cover being reported by citizens worldwide, the study also looks at  whether the SAIL (Stratospheric aerosol injection lofter) program could be deployed secretly, concluding that it could not. This conclusion will be explored by examining existing relevant documentation relating to SAI technologies and by comparing US air traffic statistics to the SAIL deployment statistics provided by Smith and Wagner.

I would also like to note, that when looking closely at many of the scientific papers relating to geoengineering, certain names and institutions keep popping up. As highlighted in the article “Harvard Science = Mad Science”, the pro geoengineering community appears to be dominated by a top down (vertical) hierarchy. Meaning a small group of people are using various types of capital to influence the many. Any observer has to wonder why Harvard  appears to have developed a propensity for publishing pageant articles related to ‘geoengineering and secrecy’.

Download >> Finding Wally: Propaganda, Inner Circles & Deniability

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